V.Shravya & G.Swetha
The primary goal of this project is to design a device to promote independence in reading for individuals with disabilities and the elderly at their own pace. Individuals with decreased hand functioning, as the result of diagnoses such as arthritis, cerebral palsy, and stroke often have difficulties with fine motor activities. Reading, specifically the act of page-turning, can be one such activity that is greatly affected. This design will ultimately provide a capability to turn and hold the page using a mechanical structure for people who need to read without assistance.
Individuals with diagnoses such as arthritis, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, stroke, and acquired brain injury often experience difficulties with fine motor tasks due to poor hand functioning, which may be a result of spasticity, contractures, joint subluxation, or structural deformities in the hand. Reading is an example of a meaningful activity that may be difficult for these people due to the requirement of fine motor skill to turn a page. Reading books, magazines, or newspapers is important in various domains of daily living, such as work, school, and leisure.
There are some limited commercially available options available to address this problem, such as electronic book readers, and using a rubber-tipped rod in a universal cuff. Though, electronic reader is portable, feedback from users indicate that eye strain is a problematic issue. Although using a rubber-tipped rod in a universal cuff attached to the palm of one’s hand is an inexpensive and portable option, feedback from users and occupational therapists note its inefficiency, as it often takes multiple tries to turn one page.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:
With the world’s aging population, decreased hand functioning from arthritis or stroke will increasingly become an issue affecting people’s abilities to engage in fine motor tasks such as reading. Arthritis sufferers include men and women, children and adults. It has dramatic effects on the function and well-being of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Approximately 350 million people worldwide have arthritis. It is estimated that by 2031, the number of people living with arthritis will increase to 6.5 million. Therefore, there exists a need for a portable, inexpensive page-turning device that requires limited fine motor movement in order to assist the abovementioned populations in being able to read bound material.
Independence is important for many people, including individuals with disabilities. As a part of our work, we have visited many NGO’s like Sweekar-Upkaar where we were moved by the problems suffered by an individual with cerebral palsy. She was a university student and thus reading and studying from textbooks was a large part of her daily life. She struggled with turning pages due to contractures and limited range of motion.
The Automatic page turner has two main features:
- A Mechanical Structure for holding the book
- An Electronic Design which turns the pages based on the input from switches
Totally, it is an electronic device which facilitates the user to turn the pages of a book and holds it for him to read. It will be simple to use, low-cost device which requires the pressing of two buttons to flip a page forward and backward. These buttons can be customized to embed in shoe, based on the patient’s requirements and physical condition. Once a book is loaded into the page turner then it shall be easily operated by the patient with the press of a button. Pressing the button will initiate the page to flip forward or backward depending on selection. And also, it is proposed that the unit can be conveniently activated with a large hand/foot pedal, sip-and-puff switch, and accelerometer.
- F: FORWARD SWITCH, R: REVERSE SWITCH:
The page-turner is normally operated from a Proximity switch. It is a battery operated machine which operates by the use of 2 switches. One drives the motor forward and the other backward.
Pages can therefore be turned forwards and backwards and also a page retainer operates automatically. The clampers detect the input given and accordingly hold or get opened up while the pages are being turned. When the motor is running, a roller moves across the page and hits a stop when it means the end of the page. The roller continues to rotate and this lifts the page. When the page is released, the reverse switch is operated and the roller pushes the released page to the other side.
- PROXIMITY SENSOR: A proximity sensor is a device that detects motion and converts it into a signal that can be read by an instrument. A proximity switch is an electronic device that, once motion is detected, interrupts or breaks an electrical circuit in a device. A proximity sensor transmits an electrostatic or electromagnetic field. The sensor detects the physical presence of an object without physical contact based on changes in the field. A proximity sensor is divided into two parts, or halves. Detection of the object causes the two parts to move away from each other, which results in the activation of a signal.
- ACCELEROMETER TWO AXES: One of the most common inertial sensors is the accelerometer, a dynamic sensor capable of a vast range of sensing. Accelerometers are available that can measure acceleration two axes. A system consisting of two orthogonal sensors is capable of sensing pitch and roll. This is useful in capturing head movements. For analog voltage output accelerometers, the signal can be a positive or negative voltage, depending on the direction of the acceleration.
- MICROCONTROLLER: The microcontroller accepts the input parallely from accelerometer and switch and determines the direction of rotation of motors for turning the pages.
- MOTOR DRIVER CIRCUIT: A motor driver circuit is a device or group of devices that serves to govern in some predetermined manner the performance of an electric motor. It might include a manual or automatic means for starting and stopping the motor, selecting forward or reverse rotation, selecting and regulating the speed, regulating or limiting the torque, and protecting against overloads and faults.
- REGULATED POWER SUPPLY: A regulated power supply is an embedded circuit, or standalone unit, the function of which is to supply a stable voltage (or less often current), to a circuit or device that must be operated within certain power supply limits.
The machine has been designed to accommodate all common sizes of books from A3-A6:
|A3||420 x 297 mm||16.5 x 11.7 in|
|A4||297 x 210 mm||11.7 x 8.3 in|
|A5||210 x 148 mm||8.3 x 5.8 in|
|A6||148 x 105 mm||5.8 x 4.1 in|
Adjustments can be made up to suit variety of paper quality and thickness and book-rest angle. This device will be useful for anyone with severe upper limb dysfunction; examples are Quadriplegia, Multiple Sclerosis and Cerebral Palsy.
Some of the ways of turning pages which might be difficult for whom reading books or newspapers is a challenge due to weak muscle activity are described below:
- The “Sliding Lift”
Force is applied downward (into the table) and across, allowing the finger(s) to grip the top page through friction.The top page slides atop the stationary pages beneath. Thepage-to-page coefficient of friction must be smaller thanthe finger-to-page coefficient of friction, or multiple pageswill be lifted (since the normal force for all pages is essentially the same).
- The “Ear Lift”
The finger barely touches the edge of the top page (and noother pages) by approaching at an angle. The finger is pulled upand back to lift the page’s corner. A slight force in the –xdirection produced the necessary friction with the pageedge and a vertical (+z) movement of the finger lifts thepage’s corner, as seen in Figure . Additionally, the thumb is placed on the page to restrict deformation to the corner only.
- The “Push Flip”
The finger is “behind” the page and pushes it over thespine, possibly (but not necessarily) sliding along itssurface. An important question is where the finger must be placed to support the page (or what trajectory the fingermust make to continuously support the page). However, in practice, if the page is assumed to be perfectly rectangular and ofuniform density, any trajectory maintaining the finger between the spine and center of mass (in the radial direction out from the spine) that ends directly above the spine should work. The assumption offlatness requires a placement of the finger near the middle of the page in the spine axis.
- The “Tension Flip”
The page is gripped by a finger on either side; it is held tautly (perfectly rectangular) by the fingers pulling with aslight centrifugal force (away from the line of rotation). The finger configuration required for this flip
Can be easily achieved after an ear lift by rolling the lifting finger behind the page and then sliding both fingers alongthe page to the desired position to begin this flip.
- The “Sandwich Flip”
The page is “sandwiched” between the finger and the spine, resultingin it deforming and bowing out across the spine. At somepoint, the majority of the page’s mass has crossed the spine and releasing the grip will cause this weight to fall andcarry the rest of the page to the other side; any pending deformations caused by stored potential energy in the bend should not affect the critical point at which the page will fall to the other side, since the net effect of these forces onthe page will cancel (in accordance with Newton’s ThirdLaw).
Books can serve many purposes, from providing an escape from reality to satisfying one’s thirst for knowledge. Disabled people should also be able to indulge in reading without any restrictions.With the usage of Automatic page turner the client can work independently without the help of others to read a book. This device not only benefits students it greatly increase the amount of time a teacher can spend with other students, making better use of the teacher’s time. Once a book is loaded into the page turner then it shall be easily operated by the client. The device can also be applied for musicians, avid readers, priests, speakers etc.To most people, page turner may never replace pages completely, but it certainly improves the situation by turning the pages.
FUTURE AS A PRODUCT:
The long-term goal of this project is to develop an electromechanical page turner with an advanced design that is superior in several respects, including reliability, portability, ease of use and cost.
Celebral palsy: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerebral_palsy
Multiple Sclerosis: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_sclerosis
Spinal cord injuries: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinal_cord_injury
This thesis would not have possible without the help of many people throughout the year.
And we would like to take the opportunity to express our sincere gratitude to those who have made invaluable contributions to this project.
We would like to thank Dr.I.A.Pasha Sir for his constant guidance and support.
I will bear in mind the knowledge that I have gained from him throughout the precious time we have spent together during Meetings and discussions.
We would also like to thank Mr. Junaid Sir for for all of his direction and help along the way towards completing the project.
Additionally, we would like to express thanks to an NGO named Sweekar-Upkaar which helped us in knowing the problems suffered by disabled people and consultants who provided relevant assistance and consultative advice when needed.
Address: Flat No: 11, Sai Bheema apartments, Sai Krishna Colony, Hasmathpet, Old Bowenpally, Secunderabad-500011
Email id: email@example.com